U.S. work visas are for different people, categorized on their skills and background. It is best that each applicant chooses the one that best aligns with their career goals and aspirations. If you are a computer scientist or a software engineer, the O-1 visa may be the perfect immigration path for your situation.

What is the O-1 Visa for Software Engineers and Computer Scientists?

The O-1 classification is the designated nonimmigrant visa for individuals with extraordinary abilities in the sciences, business, arts, or education. Software engineers and computer scientists with outstanding accomplishments and professional recognition usually seek this visa. Given the numerous advantages we have just described, it is one of the most prestigious nonimmigrant work visas in the U.S. Professionals in different fields or the technology industry, especially software engineers and computer scientists, are some of the potentially eligible candidates for the O-1 visa.

o1 visas issued 2022

O-1 Visa Eligibility Criteria

To qualify for an O-1 visa as a software engineer, you must demonstrate exceptional skills in your field. Being an exceptional candidate in the context of the O-1 visa application means you have reached a level of expertise, indicating that you are in the top percentile in the technology field. The achievements or contributions Your achievements or contributions will determine this.

In order to establish your eligibility, you can provide evidence of your extraordinary abilities such as:

  • Documentation of major awards or prizes you have received in the field of software engineering or computer science
  • Published articles or research papers authored by you in leading industry publications
  • Membership in professional associations or organizations that require outstanding achievements for admission
  • Testimonials or recommendation letters from experts in your field, attesting to your exceptional skills and contributions
  • Evidence of your original contributions and significant innovations in software engineering or computer science
  • Documentation of your employment in critical or leading roles for reputable organizations in the industry
  • Proof of high salary or remuneration that demonstrates your exceptional ability

It’s important to remind you that the O-1 visa requires sponsorship from a U.S. employer or an agent who acts on behalf of the employer. The employer or agent must file a petition with the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) on your behalf, providing the necessary documentation to support your extraordinary ability claim.

If approved, the O-1 visa allows you to work in the United States for the sponsoring employer for an initial period of up to three years. USCIS can grant extensions in one-year increments, and there is no maximum limit on the number of extensions you can receive, as long as you continue to meet the eligibility criteria.

Find out How to Get an O-1 Visa With a Ph.D

O-1 Visa Application Process for Computer Scientists and Software Engineers

To qualify for an O-1 visa, the first requirement is to have a job offer or contract from an organization in the United States. The organization will act as your sponsor by petitioning the USCIS on your behalf. An O-1 visa sponsor can be an employer or agent, depending on the nature of your contract. You must use the I-129, Petition for Nonimmigrant Worker to file for the O-1 visa with the USCIS.

Direct Employer

With this arrangement, you will work directly for an organization as an employee. Your contract must reflect a valid employer-employee working relationship, and you can only provide service for the company or organization that is directly sponsoring your O-1 visa petition.


An O-1 visa agent or manager can also be your sponsor. Visa agents are individuals or organizations hired to act as a sponsor on behalf of the beneficiary and the employer(s). This arrangement allows you to work for multiple employers, as you will not be tied to one specific employer.

O-1 Computer Scientists and Software Engineers Salary

According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the median pay for software developers is $105,590 annually and $50.77 per hour.

average software developer wage 2023

The job market has up to 1.3 million positions and is growing faster than other markets. Furthermore, with the healthy state of the U.S. economy and the increasing growth in the tech industry, the increased demand for computer software, computer scientists, and software engineers will likely continue to rise.

O-1 Visa Documentation for Computer Scientists and Software Engineers

Whether you will be working for one or multiple employers, you must present supporting evidence showing that you possess extraordinary ability in the technology industry. Therefore, the employer must submit the I-129 alongside your credentials and the following documents:


In this respect, a consultation is a letter of recommendation from a peer group such as a labor organization or an expert in your field. You should submit an original copy of the letter with a watermark or other distinctive mark to help prove its authenticity. The USCIS may waive the consultation if you can provide evidence that a consultation is not readily accessible in your specific field.

Contractual Agreement

The USCIS will also want to see the contract between you and the petitioner. This must reflect what the employer offered and the employee accepted. If the contract was oral, a summary of the terms of the agreement with documented evidence, such as emails between the two of you, must be submitted.


The itinerary explains the nature of activities your O-1 job will involve. It must include the start and end dates for each activity you participate in during your stay. If you will be working in multiple locations, your itinerary must state this.

O-1 Visa Evidentiary Criteria for Software Engineers

If you have received a major internationally-recognized award such as a Nobel Prize, you’re qualified for an O-1 visa. However, in lieu of an award of that caliber, you will need to provide evidence of at least three (3) of the following:

Receipt of National or International Award in Your Field

For this criterion, you must provide evidence that you have received lesser awards or prizes for excellence in the computer science or software engineering field that is nationally or internationally recognized. Your petition This should be well documented in your petition. It is not enough to just list the requirement—you must prove how the award demonstrates your excellence in the field of technology.

A Published Material in Professional or Major Media About Your Work 

To satisfy this criterion, your name must have appeared in an article or in a major print or online publication concerning your work or achievement in the field. The published material should be recognized nationally or internationally and include the date, title, and author’s name. The article must be mainly about your work. Your name must have equal weight and significance if the publication mentions other individuals. Articles in local media or internal reports of your company will not count for this criterion.

Membership of an Association in Your Field 

To satisfy this requirement, you must show evidence that you are a member of a guild, association, or league that is exclusively meant for experts in your specialized computer technology field. It is best if the association is one that limits its membership only to the most accomplished professionals in the field.

Your qualification for membership must solely be on merit and must have been granted by top experts in the field. School alumni associations that are open to any graduate of the school or associations that only require a certain number of years in the tech field will not count for this requirement.

It would be helpful if you could submit the constitutions or the membership requirements—including the credentials of those who are responsible for granting membership to the association—to the USCIS. This will help establish your eligibility according to this criterion.

Evidence of Participation as Judge of Works of Others in the Field   

This is to demonstrate that your expertise in the computer science software engineering industry makes you an expert in your field whose judgment, approval, consultation, or advice is sought after for other people’s work. This can be either as a member of a panel of judges or individually. If you have participated in the peer-review process of published materials by others in the field, this may count for the criterion.

Significant Contributions in the Field 

This criterion requires that you have made scholarly, scientific, or business-related contributions of major significance in the field. This may be an individual or team achievement in research, testing, or scientific discovery. The authenticity of such work will be based on the letters of support submitted by others in the field.

Keep in mind that simply presenting or publishing your work will not count. To satisfy this requirement, the presented document must be of national or international significance. It must be seen to have helped others, been cited by others, and generated a widespread public reaction. The USCIS wants to be sure that the work is considered important by other experts in the field. Ensure that documents supporting this are included as evidence.

Authorship of Scholarly Work 

This refers to articles authored by you about your work in the field. It must have been published in a major media outlet or professional journal. However, articles are not the only way to qualify. You can use other forms of publication to satisfy the requirement. It should be published in reputable and widely-known academic journals and be cited by researchers in the field.

Employment in an Essential Capacity   

This criterion requires that you present evidence showing that you have been employed in an essential or critical role for a reputable organization. Your job position must be of a high level and be crucial to the efficient operation of the organization.

High Salary Criteria

The criterion requires you to command or command a high salary or other compensation for your services. This is a way of showing that your extraordinary ability in the field has placed you on a salary scale that is higher when compared to other computer scientists or software engineers in the tech field. You can prove this by submitting the contractual agreement for your former or prospective O-1 employment.

Extend Your O-1 Visa

You are able to apply for an extension if you meet the following criteria:

  • You entered the U.S. lawfully, and your visa is not expired
  • You have not transgressed the boundaries of your visa or been convicted of a crime that would jeopardize your visa status.
  • Your passport will remain valid for the duration of your proposed extension.

If you meet the above requirements, you will need to submit three documents:

  • A copy of your employer’s Arrival/ Departure Record on Form I-94
  • Another submission of Form I-129
  • A written statement detailing the reasons for your proposed visa extension.

It’s best to consult an immigration attorney to ensure you have a strong case for renewing your visa including all the necessary documents.

What happens if I overstay my visa?

If you need more time to carry out your contract and your petition for an O-1 visa is denied, you technically have until the departure date on your I-94 to leave. If you do not, you have a strong chance of deportation and a possible future ban.

Can I file for permanent residency while on the O-1 visa?

Yes, you can since the O-1 is a dual intent visa so you can file for permanent residence and adjust your status to the green card holder.

If I am in the U.S. on another status, can I get an O-1 visa?

You can either apply for it through the change of status process or if you are outside of the U.S., you can do so through consular processing. If you are on another status, your employer must start the process by submitting an I-129 petition to USCIS. Once USCIS approves it, your status will change.

O-1 Visa Benefits

As a computer scientist or software engineer, the following benefits are just a few of the many reasons why the O-1 visa remains your best bet:

Opportunity to Work for Multiple Employers

The O-1 classification is one of the most flexible U.S. nonimmigrant work visas. It allows you to work either as an employee for an organization or pick up multiple jobs from different employers.

Longer Period of Stay

USCIS issues the O-1 visa with an initial period of stay of three years, but you can renew in increments of one year for as long as you have an existing contract with your employer(s). This is in contrast to other nonimmigrant visas that require holders to leave the U.S. after a specified number of years.

As an O-1 visa holder, there is no limit to how long you can stay as long as you have valid O-1 employment. And as a professional in the technology industry, your chances of keeping your job or changing employer to maintain your status are high.

Green Card Opportunity 

The O-1 is also a dual-intent classification that allows you to apply for a green card while under nonimmigrant status. While there are other visa types that have the same provision, the similarity between the O-1 and the first preference employment-based green card category makes green card processing much more accessible than some other nonimmigrant categories.

No Annual Cap

While some nonimmigrant visas like the H-1B and H-2B have a cap on the number of visas available in a year, there is no such barrier for the O-1 visa. As long as you follow the application process and can prove your eligibility, you can request and obtain an O-1 visa at any time of the year.

No Labor Condition Application 

Unlike most work visas in the U.S., the O-1 application process does not involve the Labor Condition Application (LCA). Including a recommendation letter from a peer group or organization in your O-1 petition effectively eliminates the need to obtain approval from the United States Department of Labor, saving time on your application process.

Typically High Approval Rate

While we can’t guarantee your specific approval, in general, this visa has a high approval rate by USCIS averaging 80-95%.

O1 Visa benefits

Frequently Asked Questions

Below are some commonly asked questions about the O-1 visa for computer scientists and software engineers.

What is the O-1 visa for engineers and computer scientists?

The O-1 visa is a non-immigrant visa category in the United States for individuals with extraordinary abilities in their fields, including engineers and computer scientists.

How can engineers and computer scientists qualify for an O-1 visa?

To qualify for an O-1 visa, engineers and computer scientists must demonstrate extraordinary ability in their field through sustained national or international acclaim and recognition as top experts.

What kind of evidence is needed to prove extraordinary ability for an O-1 visa?

Evidence may include major awards, published articles, memberships in professional associations, recommendation letters, evidence of original contributions or innovations, and proof of employment in critical roles or high remuneration.

Do I need a job offer to apply for an O-1 visa as an engineer or computer scientist?

Yes, an O-1 visa requires sponsorship from a U.S. employer or agent acting on their behalf. You need a job offer or an employment agreement specifying the terms and conditions of your employment.

Can I apply for an O-1 visa without a bachelor’s degree?

While USCIS doesn’t explicitly require a bachelor’s degree for an O-1 visa, it can strengthen your case. You can demonstrate extraordinary ability through alternative means, such as substantial industry experience and exceptional achievements.

Can I apply for an O-1 visa on my own as an engineer or computer scientist?

No, the O-1 visa requires sponsorship from a U.S. employer or agent. The employer or agent must file the petition on your behalf with the USCIS.

How long does the O-1 visa application process take?

The processing time varies, but regular processing can take several months. Consider utilizing the USCIS premium processing service for faster processing, usually within 15 calendar days for an additional fee.

Can I bring my spouse and children with me on an O-1 visa?

Yes, O-1 visa holders can bring their spouse and unmarried children under 21 to the U.S. They can apply for O-3 dependent visas, which allow them to accompany the primary visa holder.

Can I change employers on an O-1 visa?

Yes, you can change employers on an O-1 visa, but the new employer must file a new O-1 petition. You cannot start working for the new employer until USCIS approves the petition. Discuss this more with your immigration attorney.

Can I apply for a green card while on an O-1 visa?

Yes, the O-1 visa allows for dual intent. Dual Intent means you can pursue permanent residency (a green card) while on the visa without jeopardizing your status.

How long can I stay in the U.S. on an O-1 visa?

Initially, the O-1 visa is valid for up to three years. USCIS can grant extensions in one-year increments, with no maximum limit as long as you meet the eligibility criteria.

Can I apply for an O-1 visa if I’m self-employed as an engineer or computer scientist?

Yes, self-employed individuals can qualify for an O-1 visa. You must demonstrate that you have established a reputation of extraordinary ability in your field and meet the other eligibility requirements.

What affects my chances of an O-1 visa approval? 

Some reasons you may get denied include missing a petitioner, not having a thorough case with your employment contracts and itinerary, insufficient evidence, etc. It’s best to schedule a consultation with our attorneys to avoid denial.

Other Types of O Visas

In the category of O visas, there are a few other types.

O-1A: This visa is for those with extraordinary skills in education, athletics, the sciences, and business.

O-1B: This is for those who have extraordinary skills in the arts or achievements in the motion picture/television industry

O-2: This is for individuals to join someone on an O-1 (artist or athlete) to give assistance (must play an integral part) for a performance or event.

O-3: This visa is for the spouse or children of O-1 or O-2 visa holders.

How VisaNation Law Group Can Help

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It is one thing to meet the O-1 visa requirements. On the other hand, proving your eligibility with evidentiary criteria is another thing entirely. VisaNation Law Group has immigration attorneys who are experts in filing O-1 petitions and representing successful cases. Over the years, they have helped countless computer scientists and software engineers file and acquire their O-1 visas. 

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